Posts Tagged ‘audio latency’

A Cheap & Easy Method for Measuring Optical S/PDIF Audio DAC Latency

Tuesday, June 22nd, 2021

In a previous post, I described a method of measuring HDMI audio DAC latency using a computer’s sound card and a Wii U. This post describes a similar method for measuring optical S/PDIF audio DAC latency using a cheap and widely available USB audio DAC as a signal generator. I strongly recommend you give my previous post a read before reading this one to give some context for this approach.

Finding a Signal Generator

Because my Wii U test method resulted in such consistent results, I hypothesized that there might be an integrated circuit out there that would output optical S/PDIF and analog audio at the exact same time. If this was the case, it could act as a signal generator for measuring optical audio DAC latency in the same as the Wii U can be used for HDMI audio.

After some quick shopping, I decided to settle on the LiNKFOR USB DAC Audio Converter which can be purchased for only $22 USD. I found it was available on Amazon (as well as, AliExpress, and various marketplace sellers.

This USB audio DAC uses the Cmedia CM108B, which is able to output synchronized audio to analog RCA, analog headphone, RCA S/PDIF, and optical S/PDIF at the same time.

LiNKFOR USB DAC Audio Converter ‎ULKDAC070 with Cmedia CM108B

Verifying Output Synchronization

I wanted to be sure that this audio DAC did, in fact, output audio at exactly the same time through the analog outputs and the optical S/PDIF output. To test this, converted the digital optical signal into a digital voltage signal that I could compare more easily with the analog voltage signal of the RCA/headphone output.

I found the EAPLRAA4 Fiber Optic Receiver, which would make this conversion from optical to voltage with a delay of only 120 nanoseconds in a worst case. The datasheet for this receiver came with a “General application circuit”, which made wiring it up extremely easy:

EAPLRAA4 with 3V general application circuit

Now that I can represent the optical signal as voltage, I was able to simply wire it up to my 192 kHz sound card to use as a sort of makeshift oscilloscope. 192 kHz is not a high enough frequency to capture the digital S/PDIF signal in detail, but enough to get a gist of when a change has happened. In the future, I may repeat this test with a proper mixed signal oscilloscope or logic analyzer, but for now I feel these tests clearly show the accuracy of this test method.

Here’s what it looked like at different zoom levels when I played a 4800 Hz tone that turned on and off through foobar2000 in WASAPI exclusive mode:

Although I don’t have enough detail to decode the S/PDIF signal, there seems to be enough detail to show clearly that the different outputs are very closely synchronized by this Cmedia chip, making it ideal for this latency measurement method.

Testing Optical S/PDIF DAC Latency

The test process and hardware for measuring optical S/PDIF DAC latency is virtually identical to the process used for measuring HDMI audio DAC latency with a Wii U, so I will not reiterate any of those details in this post. The only differences are:

  • The optical output of the LiNKFOR USB DAC is used instead of the HDMI output of the Wii U
  • The RCA or headphone output of the LiNKFOR USB DAC is used instead of the analog RCA output of the Wii U
  • The LiNKFOR USB DAC must be connected to a computer. Simply play any audio file you want with the LiNKFOR USB DAC as your output device. (Note: On Windows, it seems like the USB audio device, called “Speakers”, is disabled by default when you plug it in. Simply enable it in your sound settings to use this as your output device.)

During these tests I discovered that there was one quirk with the LiNKFOR USB DAC: the analog audio output seems to be inverted compared to the source and optical audio output. This is not a problem, but is something to be aware of if you are using this method for measuring latency.


I only tested a couple of receivers that I have on hand and included existing latency measurements using my Wii U method:

DeviceSignalSettingAudio Latency
Marantz NR17111080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoDirect6.0ms
Marantz NR17111080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoStereo6.0ms
Marantz NR17111080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundDirect6.2ms
Marantz NR17111080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundMulti Ch6.2ms
Marantz NR1711Analog RCA StereoDirect0.0ms
Marantz NR1711Analog RCA StereoStereo0.0ms
Marantz NR1711Optical S/PDIFDirect4.9ms
Marantz NR1711Optical S/PDIFStereo7.9ms
Sony STR-DH5401080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoPure Direct56.5ms
Sony STR-DH5401080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundPure Direct13.1ms
Sony STR-DH540Analog RCA StereoPure Direct13.0ms
Sony STR-DH540Optical S/PDIFPure Direct55.8ms


The Cmedia CM108B is only capable of outputting 44.1 kHz and 48 kHz 16-bit PCM audio over optical S/PDIF. Although many other formats may be transmitted over an optical cable, this format is common and valuable to test. Please let me know if you have any recommendations for other widely available optical audio DACs that would be better suited as a signal generator!

Home Theatre Receiver Subwoofer Offset

Sunday, May 30th, 2021

When testing receiver audio latency, I noticed that some receivers were able to extract low frequencies of an analog stereo source to send to a subwoofer with zero delay to the left and right speakers. This took me by surprise, because I expected the low frequencies for the subwoofer to be digitally extracted from the analog source signal, which would take some amount of time. This lead me to suspect that there might be an offset on the subwoofer’s output compared to the output of the left and right speakers when extracting low frequencies to create a 2.1 output from a 2.0 input.

I tested a few receivers for an offset on the subwoofer’s output and the results were interesting. All receivers seem to have some amount of an offset to the subwoofer, even when operating in Direct 5.1 mode where there is a dedicated subwoofer channel in the audio stream. This offset, as I suspected, was almost always larger when the receiver needed to extract low frequency sounds, i.e. from a stereo input.

Left and LFE channel output from a Denon AVR-S650H that is given a 5.1 input with the exact same audio stream sent to all channels
Left and LFE (subwoofer) channel output from a Denon AVR-S650H that is given a 5.1 HDMI input with the exact same audio stream sent to all channels

I expected that the Audyysey speaker calibration on my Marantz receiver would be able to detect this offset and correct it by calibrating my subwoofer position to be a further distance, thus adding a delay to other speakers. Unfortunately, it seemed to only detect a 0.6 foot difference, which may have been partially due to my physical speaker placement, and did not negate the offset entirely. Strangely, only when operating in small speaker stereo mode, my subwoofer offset measurements for this receiver are much higher than other modes, but also much lower than expected with the distance setting applied. Put simply, further testing is needed to understand this subwoofer offset behaviour and how it is resolved by speaker calibration.

Speaker distances calculated by Audyysey.
Speaker distances calculated by Audyysey. During calibration, my Front R and Subwoofer were placed directly beside each other, approximately equidistant to the calibration microphone.

Here’s a full list of my measurements for a few different receivers in CSV format and in a Goolge Sheet.

While I was reviewing these measurements, I took note of some other behaviours that the receivers had. One of the receivers, the Pioneer VSX-933, defaulted to an inverted phase on its subwoofer output, but only for some input types/sound modes.

Pioneer VSX-933 sometimes inverts subwoofer phase
Pioneer VSX-933 sometimes inverts subwoofer phase

Also, all but the older Sony STR-DH540 filtered its subwoofer output with a low pass filter when it was configured to have large speakers and a dedicated subwoofer channel on the HDMI input.

Almost all receivers filter their subwoofer output
Almost all receivers filter their subwoofer output

For some receivers, especially the Marantz NR1711, the subwoofer output was very noisy with high frequencies when extracting a LFE channel from a stereo input.

Marantz NR1711 subwoofer output is very noisy
Marantz NR1711 subwoofer output is very noisy

One last behaviour I found quite interesting was a modification of the low frequency sound in the left and right channels when extracting a LFE channel from a stereo input. It seems as if the low frequency sound wave is compressed at the beginning of output. This type of behaviour existed in all receivers that I tested, but it was least notable in the older Sony STR-DH540.

All receivers would compress the low frequency output of their main channel when separating a subwoofer LFE channel
All receivers would compress the low frequency output of their main channel when separating a subwoofer LFE channel

There are many challenges of making a good DAC, especially one that can separate out an LFE channel from stereo with minimal delay. I don’t know why these behaviours are common and I also don’t know if they may effect sound quality and crossover behaviour in a real-world situation. Regardless, it seems that even a simple “Pure Direct” mode on a receiver with a dedicated LFE channel on your input signal may result in slight offset between main and LFE channels.

More Quirks of the PreSonus Studio 26c

Monday, May 17th, 2021

A little over a year ago, I posted about some unexpected behaviour with the different output channels of the PreSonus Studio 26c. During my work of testing different audio DACs and receivers for audio latency, I noticed that the internal clock on this USB audio interface to be notably off compared to other audio devices I had. To verify this, I generated a simple test signal that had tick sounds at the 1 and 11 second mark with a constant tone played throughout. I played this test signal in WASAPI exclusive mode when on a Windows computer or using the default/built-in audio player on other devices and recorded the results using my onboard audio and the PreSonus Studio 26c. I then subtracted the number of recorded samples from 480,000 which was the expected number of samples for these recordings.

Output DeviceRecording Length: ASRock Z170 Extreme7+ Onboard (Samples)Error (Samples)Recording Length: Presonus Studio 26c (Samples)Error (Samples)
ASRock Z170 Extreme7+ Onboard480,0000479,91981
Presonus Studio 26c480,081-81480,0000
2013 Macbook Pro479,98614479,90694
Samsung Galaxy S8479,9946479,91387
iPhone SE Gen 1479,98812479,90892
Marantz NR1711 USB Playback479,9991479,91882
MSI GF75 THIN Laptop479,98020479,899101
Sony STR-DH540 USB Playback479,9982479,91783
Number of samples recorded for a 10 second 48 kHz signal.
Expected samples: 480,000

It seems quite clear that the Studio 26c internal clock is quite an outlier compared to any device I could find to test with. Thankfully this did not affect my results at all during my audio latency testing because the difference in clock was too small to affect a <100ms recording. But this type of offset could become substantial after only a few minutes of recording or playback!

These results seem to show that my ASRock onboard audio clock and the clock used in my Marantz and Sony receivers are effectively the same. If these three were assumed to be a “source of truth”, this would mean that the PreSonus Studio 26c clock is actually running at 47.92 kHz when it says it is running at 48.00 kHz. As expected, this inconsistency appeared in other sample rates as well. Simply stretching the audio by 1.00016875x will correct the recording to be closer to the intended sample rate.

In the control panel for the PreSonus, there is an option to choose which clock source the device uses, but unfortunately the only option that was available to me was to use the Studio 26c internal clock. I presume that higher-end PreSonus devices allow use of a different clock through this setting to make recordings and playback consistent between devices.

How to Measure HDMI Audio Latency Using a Wii U

Wednesday, May 12th, 2021
Using a Nintendo Wii U to measure HDMI audio latency
Using a Nintendo Wii U to measure HDMI audio latency

Over the past few years it has become easier to find resources that report video input lag. But I have yet to find a good resource for audio delay introduced by receivers, TVs, sound bars, or other HDMI audio DACs. This article outlines a method of testing this delay, called latency or “input lag”, that I have found to be surprisingly precise and easy.

Before I developed this method, I had used the Xbox 360 Rock Band Wireless Fender Stratocaster. Because of the Xbox 360’s HDMI and analog RCA output, I was able to confirm the accuracy of this tool by testing it on an old CRT TV which is known to have virtually zero video and audio latency. I compared the Xbox 360 version to the Xbox One Rock Band 4, but found that the Xbox One version added around 80ms to its reported video and audio latency. It is worth noting that the audio latency reported by these tools does not seem to be extremely consistent. I found I would get results that would vary by 5 or 10 milliseconds with Rock Band 4. It became clear that a new test method was needed that was both consistent and easy for others to reproduce.

Using an Audio Card as a Data Logger

The left and right channels of a computer audio card’s “Line In” are synchronized using a very precise clock. This makes an audio card or audio interface an ideal choice for recording and comparing the offset between two audio sources. Simply wire one source to the left channel and another source to the right channel. Here is a recording of an analog audio signal being split into two and then recorded as the left and right channel of a Line In:

It’s easy to see that there is no delay to either the left or right channels when they are given the same input signal. This precision seems like a good improvement from the inconsistencies I found when using the Rock Band Wireless Fender Stratocaster.

As my audio card I used a USB audio interface that has a separate 1/4″ audio input for each channel as well as gain knobs that let me easily get the two signals at similar levels. So long as you wire it up right, any computer’s audio input should work equally well for this sort of test.

Using the Nintendo Wii U as an Audio Signal Generator

Now that we can record two audio signals and compare them for a delay, we need a way of generating an HDMI audio signal and a lag-free analog audio signal at the same time. I was happy to find that the Nintendo Wii U actually has an option to output audio via HDMI and RCA analog concurrently.

The engineers who worked on the Wii U seem to have done a very good job of synchronizing these two audio output streams, from what I can tell. At the very least, the synchronization between the Wii U’s HDMI audio and RCA analog audio seems to be very consistent, varying by less than half of a millisecond between boot cycles, which makes it ideal for testing audio latency that is introduced by an HDMI audio DAC found in a receiver or TV. I also found the results to be consistent with those from Rock Band for Xbox 360 which I had previously confirmed to be fairly accurate based on my tests with a CRT TV.

One last point for reference: according to my Elgato capture card, it seems that the Wii U outputs 16 bit 48kHz audio alongside 1920×1080 59.94 Hz video. I’m not sure what the refresh rate of the European version of the Wii U is, but I don’t see this affecting many HDMI decoder chips.


To generate an easy-to-analyze audio signal, I simply moved the Wii U game icon list onto the TV screen and used a pro controller to page back and forth between pages of games. This produced high frequency tick sounds that are easy to identify when viewing the waveform. Here is a sample of results from my tests:

BenQ ZOWIE RL2460 Headphone Port: 184/192,000 = 1.0ms
BenQ ZOWIE RL2460 Headphone Port: 184/192,000 = 1.0ms
Video Input Lag Equivalent: 1.0 + 8.3 = 9.3ms*
Sharp Roku TV 7209X Speakers: 9,678/192,000 = 50.4ms
Sharp Roku TV 7209X Speakers: 9,678/192,000 = 50.4ms
Video Input Lag Equivalent: 50.4 + 8.3 = 58.7ms*
Onkyo TX-NR585, Pure Direct, stereo HDMI signal: 2,108/192,000 = 11.0ms
Onkyo TX-NR585, Pure Direct, stereo HDMI signal: 2,108/192,000 = 11.0ms
Video Input Lag Equivalent: 11.0 + 8.3 = 19.3ms*

* 60Hz video input lag includes an additional 8.3ms to account for the average transmission time of individual pixels from the start of a frame. This value should be used when comparing audio latency to video input lag.

Test Method Limitations

It should be clear that there are some limitations to this test because the Wii U can only output up to a 1080p 60Hz video signal with either mono, stereo, or 5.1 surround sound. This means that it can not be used to test the audio latency of a packet-based 120Hz 4K HDMI 2.1 signal, for example.

Although this test method seems to be very precise, there is question as to how accurate it is. The spread of test results, including a 1.0ms latency demonstrated by the BenQ ZOWIE monitor’s headphone port, and consistency with the Xbox 360 Rock Band test suggest that these numbers are likely spot-on.

Testing Hardware

Some HDMI audio DACs may need different cables or equipment to test. For example, you will need a microphone to test speakers. Here is a picture of some of the equipment I have used:

Various cables that can be useful when measuring audio latency
Various cables that can be useful when measuring audio latency
Cables for testing using a basic onboard sound card's Line In
Cables for testing using a basic onboard sound card’s Line In

Won’t my 150W Receiver Speaker Output Damage my Sound Card?

If you are connecting your receiver directly to your sound card, you should make sure to use the Line In and not your Microphone input. The reason is because a typical Line In has a relatively high impedance compared to a Mic input. A higher impedance will reduce the current that flows through your sound card. While speakers are typically 6Ω or 8Ω, a sound card’s Line In is typically between 1,000Ω and 20,000Ω. This means that the current flowing through your sound card will be relatively low, even though your receiver is capable of delivering a much higher current to low impedance speakers.

Comparison of current for different impedance at the same voltage. Screenshots taken from Electric Calcs.
Comparison of current for different impedance at the same voltage. Screenshots taken from Electric Calcs.

The volume of the receiver directly controls the voltage output to your speakers and attaching a high voltage to your sound card could damage your sound card. The volume of your receiver should be set low and slowly increased until it matches the line output of the Wii U. All receivers should be able to operate in very low voltage ranges, much lower than the line-level voltage that your sound card is expecting. Only when the volume is set high will it begin to exceed line-level voltage.

I will be honest that I do not fully grasp the breadth of issues that mixing grounds and ground offsets can cause. If you want to be extra safe, you can always use a passive microphone held to a speaker or a ground loop isolator on your device’s output before mixing it with the Wii U’s ground.

Notes for Testing Receivers

Receivers have a lot of settings and each of these settings can impact audio latency. Here are some notes you should keep in mind when testing audio latency of a receiver:

  • Receivers can often have drastically different latency based on the input signal. It’s a good idea to test different input signals such as 2.0 stereo and 5.1 surround over HDMI.
    • Both a Yamaha and Sony receiver that I tested had over 40ms longer audio latency when processing an HDMI stereo signal compared to an HDMI surround sound signal.
  • A receiver’s “Speaker Distance” setting affects audio latency. Speakers that are a closer distance will have a delay applied to them to make all speakers’ sounds reach the listener at the same moment. When testing, it’s important to set all of the speaker distances to be equal so no delay will be applied to any of the speakers.
    • Automatic speaker calibration such as Audyssey or Accueq will adjust speaker distances, so you should expect this to add a delay to some or all speakers.
  • Equalizers, such as those that are activated by speaker calibration like Audyssey or Accueq, may introduce an additional audio delay. The “Direct” sound mode can be used to disable equalizers.
  • When no equalizer is active, the “Direct” sound mode often does not reduce or increase audio latency for an HDMI signal but often does reduce audio latency for an analog signal. It’s a good idea to test different sound modes to see which affect latency.
    • In my initial tests, only one of six different brands had reduced audio latency in Direct mode with an HDMI signal. Conversely, four out of these six had reduced audio latency in Direct mode for an analog signal.
  • A receiver’s “auto lip sync” feature enables communication with a TV over ARC or eARC to add a delay to audio to match your TV’s video latency. Most receivers also have a manual audio delay setting for lip sync. The manual setting should be set to zero when testing and the auto lip sync setting should be turned off when testing if you have the receiver connected to a TV that may be communicating it’s auto lip sync delay.
  • Most receivers will have a different latency for an analog signal compared to an HDMI signal, so testing with an analog signal (no Wii U required) can be useful if you ever plan to plug in an analog source to your receiver.

HDMI Audio Latency List

Here’s a selection of the HDMI audio latency tests I have done to date using this Wii U testing method:


DeviceSignalSettingOutputAudio LatencyVideo Input Lag Equivalent*
BenQ ZOWIE RL24601080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoN/AHeadphones1.0ms9.3ms
LG 27UD59P1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoN/AHeadphones1.3ms9.6ms


DeviceSignalSettingOutputAudio LatencyVideo Input Lag Equivalent*
Sharp Roku TV 7209X1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoGame ModeSpeakers50.4ms58.7ms
Sony Bravia X800H1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoGameSpeakers96.2ms104.5ms
Sony Bravia X800H1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoGameHeadphones68.1ms76.4ms
Sony Bravia X800H + MYPIN Audio Converter PC0003231080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoGameOptical + RCA69.2ms77.5ms
Sony Bravia X800H + SHARC eARC Audio Converter1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoGame w/ ARC PCMARC + RCA68.6ms76.9ms


DeviceSignalSettingOutputAudio LatencyVideo Input Lag Equivalent*
Marantz NR1711 (2020)1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoPure DirectSpeakers6.0ms14.3ms
Marantz NR1711 (2020)1080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundPure DirectSpeakers6.3ms14.6ms
Onkyo TX-NR585 (2018)1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoGame DirectSpeakers11.0ms19.3ms
Onkyo TX-NR585 (2018)1080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundGame DirectSpeakers10.6ms18.9ms
Pioneer VSX-933 (2018)1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoPure DirectSpeakers11.0ms19.3ms
Pioneer VSX-933 (2018)1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoStereoSpeakers16.2ms24.5ms
Pioneer VSX-933 (2018)1080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundPure DirectSpeakers10.5ms18.8ms
Pioneer VSX-933 (2018)1080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundPCMSpeakers15.5ms23.8ms
Denon AVR-S650H (2019)1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoDirectSpeakers19.1ms27.4ms
Denon AVR-S650H (2019)1080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundDirectSpeakers19.0ms27.3ms
Sony STR-DH540 (2013)1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoPure DirectSpeakers56.5ms64.8ms
Sony STR-DH540 (2013)1080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundPure DirectSpeakers13.1ms21.4ms
Yamaha RX-V4A (2020)1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoPure DirectSpeakers67.9ms76.2ms
Yamaha RX-V4A (2020)1080p 60Hz 5.1 SurroundPure DirectSpeakers17.7ms26.0ms

HDMI Audio Extractors

DeviceSignalSettingOutputAudio LatencyVideo Input Lag Equivalent*
OREI HDA-912 HDMI Audio Extractor 18G1080p 60Hz 2.0 StereoAnyHeadphones18.5ms26.8ms
Almencla 5.1CH HDMI Audio Extractor1080p 60Hz 5.1 Surround5.1CHRCA70.5ms78.8ms

* 60Hz video input lag includes an additional 8.3ms to account for the average transmission time of individual pixels from the start of a frame. This rightmost column should be used when comparing audio latency to video input lag.

Complete Test Result Details

A complete list of all of the audio latency tests I have done can be found in this google sheet. This sheet includes exhaustive testing on the receivers mentioned in the above tables. Feel free to make a copy so you can sort and filter!