Quirks and Limitations of the PreSonus Studio 26c

April 28th, 2020

Today I got a new oscilloscope! This new scope has a DC-coupled z-input that modulates the electron beam intensity and can be used for blanking (turning off the electron beam while it moves between shapes that it’s drawing).

When I hooked it up, I started to notice some strange quirks and limitations to my PreSonus Studio 26c audio DAC that I am using to drive the XY display mode of my oscilloscope: It seems that some of the audio outputs on this audio interface behave very differently than other outputs!

First off, I noticed that output channels 1 & 2, although they have the benefit of being adjustable by the volume knob on the front of the device and can have mic inputs live-mixed into their output, they are much noisier than output from channels 2 & 3:

(Click on the image to see the full sized image)

The second thing I noticed was that there is actually a delay on channels 3 & 4 compared to 1 & 2! I haven’t calculated how much of a delay yet, but judging from the image, I would guess it’s around 20 samples at 192 kHz, or 0.1ms. This is obviously a big deal when trying to use them in tandem:

I intend to use 3 channels of this PreSonus DAC: two for X/Y control and 1 for blanking (brightness/intensity). This delay obviously has an impact on blanking:

You can see in this image that there are gaps in the shapes and the blanking lines are still visible because the intensity is not being modulated at the correct time due to the delay.

To address this issue, it won’t be too hard to put a software delay on the brightness output stream to line it up with the X/Y output streams.

Overshooting, Oscillations, and Blanking on a Vector Display

March 31st, 2020

Before I started work on creating a vector game engine to be used on displays like oscilloscopes, I had watched a really fantastic explanation of how to create graphics for laser displays by Seb Lee-Delisle:

In this video, Seb talked about the challenges of working with a laser that takes time to accelerate and decelerate as it moves around the screen. Draw sorting and gradually changing the laser’s position when moves between shapes are two techniques that he used when recreating Asteroids for a laser projector. When approaching my new oscilloscope project, I kept these ideas in my back pocket as solutions to problems I expected to have.

Overshooting and Oscillations

Sure enough, I did have some problems with controlling the electron beam of my oscilloscope vector display. When moving from one position to another which is very far away, the electron beam would overshoot and oscillate before finally settling into the place I wanted it to land:

For context, my current setup and game engine uses an audio DAC that is running at 192 kHz with a variable video game framerate. My current project targets 80 fps, but it could go much higher. 80 fps with 192,000 samples per second means that I can move the electron beam 2400 times per frame. If I need to move the electron beam more times per frame, that frame will take longer to draw and the framerate will drop. If it drops too low, you can start to see flickering, like an old CRT monitor running at a low refresh rate. The electron beam moves extremely quickly — faster than 192,000th of a second! So I need to gradually step along the path I am drawing. This effectively “slows down” the electron beam’s movement when drawing a shape. This means that 2400 samples per frame is not very much to work with!

Draw Sorting

Getting back to the problem of the electron beam overshooting and oscillating, I started first with the solution of draw sorting. I figured that if I could make the electron beam move in a more optimized path that it could help reduce the distance that the beam needed to travel between shapes and thus reduce the overshooting and oscillation at the start of drawing a new shape.

I implemented a very quick prototype algorithm that simply looked for the next shape that was closest to the current electron beam position every time it finished drawing a shape. This had some immediate drawbacks that I didn’t expect! Although, it’s possible this method could help with the overshooting, I found that it caused a much bigger problem: the scene started flickering and jittering as I moved the camera around!

The reason for this flicker and jitter was immediately obvious to me — the refresh rate of each shape was varying between frames! Here’s an example of a worst case scenario that would cause this problem: Let’s say, after sorting all the shapes, the draw order of objects is: [A, B, C, D, E, F, G]. But then the player moves the camera and the scene changes such that the draw order after sorting is something like [B, C, D, E, F, G, A]. While object A was drawn first in one frame, it was drawn last in the next frame. Without sorting, object A would have been drawn once every 1/80th of a second, but now it needed to wait a full 1/40th of a second before being re-drawn to the screen. This behaviour causes flicker and can make objects look like they are jittering as a camera pans across the scene.

This experiment has made it very clear that I must always draw shapes in the same order with a vector display to ensure that their refresh rate is kept somewhat constant!


Blanking is a term used to describe the time when a display will “blank” (stop drawing an image) for a short period of time while it prepares draw at a different position, usually on the opposite side of the screen. The idea of blanking is important and valuable to both raster and vector displays. With my current oscilloscope, I do not have the ability to turn off the electron beam, but I can dedicate some additional time to give the electron beam a chance to settle in its new position before starting to draw. Here’s what it looks like if I pause on the new draw position for 7 samples (7/192,000th of a second) before continuing to draw the new shape:

You can see that this definitely helps. Now each line is being fully drawn, though the initial oscillations as the beam settles on the new location can still be seen.

Exponential Deceleration During Blanking

There was one last trick that I kept in my back pocket: changing the acceleration of the the electron between points, during blanking. I fiddled with some different tween functions, and settled on a 7 frame blanking with a quadratic ease out:

Ta-da! This is now looking pretty crisp. In the future, I plan to change the number of blanking samples based on the distance between the two shapes. If it’s a small distance, there’s no point in spending a full 7 samples during this blanking time.

Oscilloscope Z-Input & Blanking

I mentioned previously that I was unable to turn the electron beam off and on while moving between shapes. This isn’t entirely true: my oscilloscope does have a “z-input” that can be used for blanking. But unfortunately, I found that it is AC-coupled. This means that the z-input is only able to detect changes in voltage, rather than read the DC voltage directly like my x and y-inputs. My game engine has actually supported changing the brightness of samples through a “z-input” and a third audio channel since the beginning, but I will need to get a new oscilloscope with a DC-coupled z-input that I can use for full-featured blanking.

Further Progress

My vector game engine’s source code is available on Github under the MIT license. It’s pretty rough and I intend to use it primarily for my own experiments, but you’re welcome to peek around and check out the progress. I plan to continue to post here from time to time with updates, but for the latest news on the project, check out my Twitter feed.

Making a Vector Game Engine with an Oscilloscope

March 10th, 2020

A couple of weeks ago I started work on a new video game engine for vector displays. For a long time I have been enamoured by the uniquely high contrast of vector displays. A local bar named House of Targ hosted an original Asteroids arcade cabinet that only could be appreciated in-person: the super bright effect of the weapon shots was something that couldn’t be reproduced on any type of display.

Later I was introduced to Oscilloscope Music and where I discovered how easy it was to control a vector display using an audio signal. The creator of this music also produced a series of tutorials that described the audio equipment needed. This allowed me to get up and running very quickly with my own vector game engine.

My vector game engine is being developed in C# with its primary output being the ASIO audio interface. I’ve started off by using a number of math and input classes from MonoGame. After less than a week of blind programming with only a debugger to show me the buffer states, I managed to create a rotating cube that displayed first try on an old oscilloscope. After another week, I’ve got to the point where I have a very basic 3D scene that you can navigate using an Xbox One controller or the Xbox Adaptive Controller. My plan is to make alternative control video games with this as my output.

I’m not the first to be doing these types of experiments. And vector display games were some of the first video games. There was even a home all-in-one console called Vectrex! Here are some links to other cool articles and projects:

…And some music-focused links:

My vector game engine’s source code is available on Github under the MIT license. It’s pretty rough and I intend to use it primarily for my own experiments, but you’re welcome to peek around and check out the progress. I plan to continue to post here from time to time with updates, but for the latest news on the project, check out my Twitter feed.

Disabling Frustum Culling on a Game Object in Unity

December 19th, 2013

You should never disable frustum culling in a release build.

But sometimes it can be useful to do so for debugging or when dealing with a really wacky vertex shader where mesh bounds don’t make sense anymore. Here’s an easy way to disable frustum culling on a game object by moving its bounds into the center of the camera’s frustum:

// boundsTarget is the center of the camera's frustum, in world coordinates:
Vector3 camPosition = camera.transform.position;
Vector3 normCamForward = Vector3.Normalize(camera.transform.forward);
float boundsDistance = (camera.farClipPlane - camera.nearClipPlane) / 2 + camera.nearClipPlane;
Vector3 boundsTarget = camPosition + (normCamForward * boundsDistance);

// The game object's transform will be applied to the mesh's bounds for frustum culling checking.
// We need to "undo" this transform by making the boundsTarget relative to the game object's transform:
Vector3 realtiveBoundsTarget = this.transform.InverseTransformPoint(boundsTarget);

// Set the bounds of the mesh to be a 1x1x1 cube (actually doesn't matter what the size is)
Mesh mesh = GetComponent().mesh;
mesh.bounds = new Bounds(realtiveBoundsTarget, Vector3.one);

[Download C# Unity Script Component]

Visualising the OpenGL 3D Transform Pipeline Using Unity

October 12th, 2013


Download Unity package


“Hi, I’m Allen Pestaluky. I’m going to go over a simple tool that I’ve made in Unity that visualizes the 3D transform pipeline in OpenGL. You can download it and find the transcript of this video on my blog at allenwp.com or via the link in the video description.

This tool was designed to provide a quick visual refresher on the coordinate systems used during the 3D transform pipeline in OpenGL and Unity. If you’re planning on doing any advanced non-standard vertex transformations, especially in the vertex shader, this tool might help you refresh your memory and will enable you to simulate your transforms in a visualized, debuggable environment rather than blinding coding in the vertex shader. Or, if you’re new to 3D graphics, this tool might help you gain a better visual understanding of 3D graphics theory.

The tool that I’ve made is nothing more than a few scripts and a prefab in a unity scene. These white cube game objects represent vertices that are being passed into the vertex shader. This script assumes that these vertices don’t need any world transformation, but it would be easy to modify the script to add in other transforms to any point in the pipeline. The transform manager hosts the script which creates game objects that represent these vertices as they are transformed by the view, projection, and viewport transformations.

The Scale property adjusts the scale of the generated game objects. The Transform Camera provides the view and projection matrices. You can add any number of game objects to the vertices list to see how they will be transformed by each step of the pipeline. Finally, the View, Projection, and Viewport Transform boolean properties are used to toggle visibility of each transformation step.

You can see that, when run, new orange spheres are added to the scene view. These represent the vertices after they have been transformed by the view matrix of the camera. In Unity, the view matrix is exposed as the “worldToCameraMatrix” property of a camera and it does just that: the view matrix transforms vertices from world coordinates into camera coordinates, also known as eye or view coordinates. As you can see, these coordinates are relative to the eye of the camera. The vertices that are closer to the camera have a smaller z component and vise-versa. But it’s important to note that what you are seeing is not the exact result of the 4 dimensional view transform; first, a homogeneous divide must be performed on the resulting homogeneous 4 dimensional vector to transform it to 3 dimensional space that we can see in the scene view. Or, in this case, we could simply discard the fourth “w” component because it is 1. For each of the transformed vertices, you can see the original 4D coordinates in the “Homogeneous Vertex” property and the 3D coordinates in the position property which is visualized in the scene view.

Next, I’m going to configure the transform manager to show the result of the view and projection transforms. This results in a 4 dimensional coordinate system referred to as “clip space”. Clip space is what most graphics pipelines expect you to return from your vertex shader. No surprise, clipping is performed in this coordinate system by comparing x, y, and z coordinates against w. Any x, y, or z component greater than w or less than -w is clipped. Note that DirectX is slightly different and clips the z axis when it is less than 0. The flashing vertices that you see represent those that are being clipped.

Next, we transform into 3D space known as the normalized device coordinate system by performing the homogenous divide on the clip space vector. You can see that this coordinate system hosts your camera’s view frustum in the form of a canonical view volume between negative 1 and positive 1 on each axis. This volume is represented by the cube outline. All clipped vertices lie outside of this volume. We are now very close to what we see rendered.

Lastly we perform the final viewport transform. This tool doesn’t take any x and y offset into account, but does scale the normalized device coordinates to match the viewport width and height. The transformation into 2 dimensional space is as simple as throwing away the z component from the normalized device coordinates. You can see that this puts us in a coordinate space that matches that of our final viewport.

Hopefully this tool is useful. Please let me know if you have any questions by posting a comment on my blog — you can find the link in the description of this video if you need it. Thanks!”